Standard Article

Substance P

  1. Andrew A Bremer1,
  2. Susan E Leeman2

Published Online: 15 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000206.pub2

eLS

eLS

How to Cite

Bremer, A. A. and Leeman, S. E. 2010. Substance P. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of California, Davis, California, USA

  2. 2

    Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2010

Abstract

Substance P (SP) is an 11 amino acid bioactive peptide that causes diverse biological effects in the central nervous system (CNS), as well as in the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, immune and autonomic nervous systems. The principal actions of SP are mediated through its functional interaction with the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, which exists in two isoforms. Investigators are currently focusing on the structure–activity relationships between SP and the different NK-1 receptor isoforms, as well as the signal transduction pathways involved in the many SP-mediated responses. In addition, nonpeptide antagonists of SP have been and are continuing to be developed for clinical use. This article summarizes the basic biology of SP and its interaction with the NK-1 receptor, highlights the role of SP and the neurokinin receptors in clinical disease states and then concludes with describing new exciting areas of SP-related research.

Key Concepts:

  • Substance P is an 11 amino acid bioactive peptide that induces diverse biological responses.

  • The principal receptor for substance P is the neurokinin-1 receptor, which exists in two isoforms.

  • Antagonists of substance P and the neurokinin-1 receptor have been and are continuing to be developed for clinical use.

  • Research in the area of substance P and the neurokinin-1 receptor continues to provide more insight into the importance of these molecules in states of human health and disease.

Keywords:

  • neuropeptide;
  • tachykinin;
  • pain;
  • inflammation