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Amino Acid Biosynthesis

  1. Giacomo Deferrari,
  2. Irene Mannucci,
  3. Giacomo Garibotto

Published Online: 15 SEP 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0000628.pub2



How to Cite

Deferrari, G., Mannucci, I. and Garibotto, G. 2010. Amino Acid Biosynthesis. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2010


  1. References
  2. Further Reading
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  • Felig P (1975) Amino acid metabolism in man. Annual Review of Biochemistry 44: 933955.
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  • Fürst P and Stehle P (2004) What are the essential elements needed for the determination of amino acid requirements in humans? Journal of Nutrition 134(6 suppl.): 1558S1565S.
  • Garibotto G, Tessari P, Verzola D and Dertenois L (2002) The metabolic conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine in the human kidney: does it have nutritional implications in renal patients? Journal of Renal Nutrition 12(1): 816.
  • Harper AE and Peters JC (1983) Amino acid signals and food intake and preference: relation to body protein metabolism. Experientia. Supplementum 44: 107134.
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  • Krebs HA (1940) The citric acid cycle: a reply to the criticisms of F. L. Breusch and of J. Thomas. Biochemical Journal 34(3): 460463.
  • Liu Z, Jahn LA, Long W et al. (2001) Branched chain amino acids activate messenger ribonucleic acid translation regulatory proteins in human skeletal muscle, and glucocorticoids blunt this action. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86(5): 21362143.
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  • Tessari P, Vettore M, Millioni R, Puricelli L and Orlando R (2010) Effect of liver cirrhosis on phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 13(1): 8186.
  • Tizianello A, Deferrari G, Garibotto G et al. (1983) Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in chronic renal failure. Kidney International. Supplement 16: S17S22.
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Further Reading

  1. References
  2. Further Reading
  • Deferrari G, Garibotto G, Robaudo C et al. (1994) Renal ammoniagenesis and interorgan flow of glutamine in chronic metabolic acidosis. Contributions to Nephrology 110: 144149.
  • Garibotto G, Valli A, Anderstam B et al. (2009) The kidney is a major site of S-adenosylhomocysteine disposal in humans. Kidney International 76: 293296.
  • Heinemann IU, O'Donoghue P, Madinger C et al. (2009) The appearance of pyrrolysine in tRNAH is guanylyltransferase by neutral evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106: 2110321108.
  • Meijer AJ, Lamers WH and Chamuleau RAFM (1990) Nitrogen metabolism and ornithine cycle function. Physiological Reviews 70: 701748.
  • Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Davis T and Stoll B (1998) Amino acid metabolism and the energetics of growth. Archives of Animal Nutrition 51: 187197.
  • Rose WC (1957) The amino acid requirements of adult man. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews 27: 631647.
  • Tessari P and Garibotto G (2000) Inter-organ amino acid exchange. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 3: 5157.