Standard Article

C3 Carbon Reduction Cycle

  1. Christine A Raines,
  2. Julie C Lloyd

Published Online: 28 SEP 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001314.pub2



How to Cite

Raines, C. A. and Lloyd, J. C. 2007. C3 Carbon Reduction Cycle. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. University of Essex, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 SEP 2007

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (17 APR 2017)


The C3 carbon reduction cycle is the primary pathway of carbon fixation in all photosynthetic organisms, reducing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to form carbohydrates and in higher plants it takes place in the chloroplast stroma.


  • Calvin cycle;
  • photosynthesis;
  • light regulation;
  • thioredoxin;
  • Rubisco