Standard Article

Proteins: Fundamental Chemical Properties

  1. Alain J Cozzone

Published Online: 19 APR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001330.pub2

eLS

eLS

How to Cite

Cozzone, A. J. 2010. Proteins: Fundamental Chemical Properties. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. University of Lyon, Institute of Biology and Chemistry of Proteins, CNRS, Lyon, France

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 APR 2010

Abstract

Proteins are the most abundant class of biological macromolecules as they represent over 50% of the dry weight of cells. They are involved in virtually all chemical reactions and processes occurring in life forms as well as in the mechanical support and filamentous architecture within and between cells. Irrespective of their functional or structural role, they all are formed from the same 20 building blocks, called amino acids, which are joined end-to-end through covalent linkages termed peptide bonds.

The size, ionisation properties and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the constituent amino acids influence the solubility, stability and structural organisation of proteins that exist essentially in either aqueous or membrane environments.

The amino acid sequences (primary structures) determine the higher structural levels (secondary and tertiary) of proteins and specify their biological properties.

Key Concepts:

  • Proteins occupy a prominent position in all biological systems, both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  • Irrespective of their structural or functional role, all proteins are built from the same fundamental blocks, the amino acids.

  • The physico-chemical properties of the constituent amino acids determine the structure and biological function of proteins.

Keywords:

  • amino acid;
  • chemical properties of proteins;
  • protein structure