Proteins: Fundamental Chemical Properties
Published Online: 19 APR 2010
Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
How to Cite
Cozzone, A. J. 2010. Proteins: Fundamental Chemical Properties. eLS. .
- Published Online: 19 APR 2010
Proteins are the most abundant class of biological macromolecules as they represent over 50% of the dry weight of cells. They are involved in virtually all chemical reactions and processes occurring in life forms as well as in the mechanical support and filamentous architecture within and between cells. Irrespective of their functional or structural role, they all are formed from the same 20 building blocks, called amino acids, which are joined end-to-end through covalent linkages termed peptide bonds.
The size, ionisation properties and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the constituent amino acids influence the solubility, stability and structural organisation of proteins that exist essentially in either aqueous or membrane environments.
The amino acid sequences (primary structures) determine the higher structural levels (secondary and tertiary) of proteins and specify their biological properties.
Proteins occupy a prominent position in all biological systems, both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Irrespective of their structural or functional role, all proteins are built from the same fundamental blocks, the amino acids.
The physico-chemical properties of the constituent amino acids determine the structure and biological function of proteins.
- amino acid;
- chemical properties of proteins;
- protein structure