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Mutational Biases

  1. Lev Y Yampolsky1,
  2. Arlin Stoltzfus2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001729.pub2



How to Cite

Yampolsky, L. Y. and Stoltzfus, A. 2008. Mutational Biases. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee, USA

  2. 2

    National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2008


Mutational biases refer to systematic asymmetries or nonuniformities in the occurrence of mutations, heritable changes that take place in an individual organism. Mutational biases arise by asymmetries in damage, repair and replication of the genetic material. Many such biases are known: familiar examples include transition:transversion bias, the CpG effect and deletion:insertion bias. Mutation biases are biologically significant to the extent that they modulate the probabilities of heritable diseases and of evolutionary changes.


  • transition–transversion bias;
  • GC bias;
  • strand-specific bias;
  • insertion–deletion bias