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Molecular Evolution: Rates

  1. Lindell Bromham

Published Online: 20 SEP 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001802.pub3



How to Cite

Bromham, L. 2013. Molecular Evolution: Rates. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Centre for Macroevolution and Macroecology, Division of Ecology Evolution and Genetics, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 SEP 2013


The rate of molecular evolution varies dramatically between taxa, for example, some viruses have a rate of genome evolution a million times faster than mammals. Although some rate variation may be due to random fluctuations or locus-specific effects, studies have revealed strong and predictable patterns in the differences in the rate of molecular evolution between species. In particular, large, long-lived organisms with low reproductive output tend to have slower rates of molecular evolution than related species with shorter lives, faster generations or higher fecundity. Studies of the variation in the rate of molecular evolution between species may reveal the mechansims underlying these differences, and can inform analyses that seek to derive information on evolutionary history and processes from molecular data.

Key Concepts:

  • The number of genetic differences between lineages increases with the time since their separation, but differences do not accrue in the same rate in all lineages.

  • Variation in the rate of molecular evolution can be compared between species by comparing absolute rates, derived from laboratory experiments or estimated by comparing sequences where the age of the divergence is known.

  • A more common approach is to compare the relative rate differences between species by comparing the number of sequence changes that have accumulated since they last shared a common ancestor.

  • Mutation rate varies between species, at least in part due to the action of selection finding a balance between the competing costs of DNA repair and mutation.

  • Many mutations arise from DNA replication errors, so the more times DNA is copied per unit time, the higher the mutation rate will be.

  • Rates of molecular evolution in many taxa scale with body size, possibly because smaller-bodied taxa go through more genome replications per unit time, a hypothesis referred to as the generation time effect.

  • Metabolic rate has been suggested to play a role in species differences in mutation rate, on the assumption that species with higher mass-specific metabolic rate will suffer more DNA damage per unit time, though there is little direct evidence for this hypothesis.

  • Natural selection might play a role in fine-tuning mutation rates to fit different life history strategies, for example, reducing mutation rates in large, long-lived organisms.


  • molecular clock;
  • substitution;
  • mutation;
  • relative rates;
  • generation time;
  • metabolic rate;
  • longevity;
  • population size