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Codon Usage in Molecular Evolution

  1. Richard L Grantham

Published Online: 21 DEC 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0001806.pub2



How to Cite

Grantham, R. L. 2007. Codon Usage in Molecular Evolution. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Université Lyon, Villeurbanne, France

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 DEC 2007


In protein synthesis, succeeding amino acids are indicated by a sequence of codons in the gene. A given amino acid may be represented by up to six codons, making a choice between synonymous codons possible; this permits the creation of an evolutionary pattern of codon usages.


  • codon bias;
  • %G+C;
  • GC3S;
  • intron;
  • exon;
  • mRNA;
  • tRNA;
  • mtDNA