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Pollination by Animals

  1. Nickolas M Waser1,2

Published Online: 28 SEP 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003163.pub2



How to Cite

Waser, N. M. 2007. Pollination by Animals. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of California, Riverside, California, USA

  2. 2

    University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 SEP 2007

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 APR 2014)


Most flowering plants depend on flower-visiting animals such as bees for their sexual reproduction. Animal pollination is critical for crop and natural ecosystems and plays central roles in plant ecology and evolution.


  • evolution;
  • mutualism;
  • pollination web;
  • selection;
  • specialization