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Water Conservation and Efficiency

  1. Heather Cooley,
  2. Peter H Gleick

Published Online: 28 SEP 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003296



How to Cite

Cooley, H. and Gleick, P. H. 2007. Water Conservation and Efficiency. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security, Oakland, California, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 SEP 2007


Although traditional water planning has brought tremendous benefits, it has also wrought unanticipated social, economic and environmental costs. The failure of the traditional water-supply planning process is slowly leading to new discussions and new ideas. Increasingly, water managers are realizing the importance of managing the other side of the supply equation – demand. Demand management, or conservation and efficiency, refers to the implementation of technologies, practices and policies that reduce water use ‘without compromising service’. Although progress has been made in recent years, studies indicate that the potential for reducing water waste remains large.


  • demand management;
  • water conservation;
  • water-use efficiency;
  • consumptive water use;
  • water management