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Ethics of Research: Protection of Human Subjects

  1. Fred Gifford

Published Online: 21 DEC 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0003482.pub2



How to Cite

Gifford, F. 2007. Ethics of Research: Protection of Human Subjects. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 DEC 2007

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 SEP 2014)


Research involving human subjects is invaluable for answering both scientific and clinical questions, especially those centred on making medical intervention as effective and safe as possible. But it raises a number of difficult moral issues: such experimentation can impose risk, questions arise about the adequacy of informed consent and clinical research creates a tension between the roles of clinical therapist and research scientist.


  • regulations;
  • informed consent;
  • experimental treatment;
  • clinical trial