Parasites and Pathogens: Avoidance
Published Online: 15 DEC 2008
Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
How to Cite
Thieltges, D. W. and Poulin, R. 2008. Parasites and Pathogens: Avoidance. eLS. .
- Published Online: 15 DEC 2008
Parasites and pathogens are usually harmful, and thus hosts have developed numerous pre-contact measures to avoid infection in the first place. These avoidance measures range from camouflage to a variety of behavioural measures such as movement and fly-repelling behaviour, habitat choice and migration, selective foraging, group forming and mate choice. In case avoidance fails, a second line of post-contact defences (e.g. immune system) comes into place which is treated elsewhere and thus only briefly discussed.