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Evolution: Convergent and Parallel Evolution

  1. Caro-Beth Stewart

Published Online: 21 DEC 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0005115.pub2



How to Cite

Stewart, C.-B. 2007. Evolution: Convergent and Parallel Evolution. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 DEC 2007


Convergence and parallelism are two forms of independent evolution of similar or identical traits; they are often taken as evidence for adaptive evolution, but can also occur due to design limitations or by chance.


  • homology;
  • analogy;
  • homoplasy;
  • convergence;
  • reversal