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Complement System: Evolution

  1. Masaru Nonaka

Published Online: 21 DEC 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0006135.pub2



How to Cite

Nonaka, M. 2007. Complement System: Evolution. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 DEC 2007

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 JAN 2013)


The human complement system is one of the principal effector systems of innate immunity and consists of more than 30 serum and cell surface proteins. Most complement components show a striking modular structure, and evolutionary studies indicate development from a simpler system by gene duplications and exon shuffling in the vertebrate lineage.


  • gene duplication;
  • modular structure;
  • innate immunity