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Nuclear Receptor Genes: Evolution

  1. Pablo J Sáez1,
  2. Soledad Lange1,
  3. Tomas Pérez-Acle2,
  4. Gareth I Owen1

Published Online: 15 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0006145.pub3

eLS

eLS

How to Cite

Sáez, P. J., Lange, S., Pérez-Acle, T. and Owen, G. I. 2010. Nuclear Receptor Genes: Evolution. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Santiago, Chile

  2. 2

    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiológicas and Centre for Bioinformatics, Santiago, Chile

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2010
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Figure 1. (a) A schematic representation of the metazoan family tree, showing the potential branching points of the last common ancestors between each phylum. (b) The six subfamilies of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily. A consensus phylogenetic tree demostrating the distribution of representative nuclear receptor members in the Metazoa and their distribution into six subfamilies. This figure uses the trivial names of the NRs. For a complete list of the corresponding new nomenclature see Nuclear Receptors Committee 1999 or the Nuclear Receptor Nomenclature Home page. This phylogenetic tree was constructed using the ClustalX program v2.0 with the near-neighbour joining method. From top to bottom the accession numbers are: XP_779976, P13631, BAA25569, NP_001071806, NP_001123279, AAF57280, XP_001636937, NP_775180, CAA61534, AAL29199, XP_001619117, XP_001634258, XP_001632045, AAL29194, ACF16007, ABI97120, BAE06416, P11474, AAU88062, NP_001135406, XP_002117374, XP_001636637, XP_002117375, XP_001624292, NP_001122483, XP_001631058, AAL29201, AAL29196, XP_002109806, XP_002159396, BAE06356, AAF54774, XP_001944021, XP_001629708, AAL29200, AAF57091, XP_002154441, XP_001624815, XP_001634999, AAF52303, XP_780706, ACG76360, XP_001630385, AAP79295, XP_001630386, AAL29193, AAC80008, NP_476781, BAE06678, XP_002109459, BAF85823, AAW34268, NP_001097126, BAE06492, XP_001638550, XP_002159483, CAA61134, XP_002115810, ACA04755, CAD57002, NP_730359, ACH68437, XP_001179003, BAE06474, NP_001024953, CAA06670.

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Figure 1. (continued) (a) A schematic representation of the metazoan family tree, showing the potential branching points of the last common ancestors between each phylum. (b) The six subfamilies of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily. A consensus phylogenetic tree demostrating the distribution of representative nuclear receptor members in the Metazoa and their distribution into six subfamilies. This figure uses the trivial names of the NRs. For a complete list of the corresponding new nomenclature see Nuclear Receptors Committee 1999 or the Nuclear Receptor Nomenclature Home page. This phylogenetic tree was constructed using the ClustalX program v2.0 with the near-neighbour joining method. From top to bottom the accession numbers are: XP_779976, P13631, BAA25569, NP_001071806, NP_001123279, AAF57280, XP_001636937, NP_775180, CAA61534, AAL29199, XP_001619117, XP_001634258, XP_001632045, AAL29194, ACF16007, ABI97120, BAE06416, P11474, AAU88062, NP_001135406, XP_002117374, XP_001636637, XP_002117375, XP_001624292, NP_001122483, XP_001631058, AAL29201, AAL29196, XP_002109806, XP_002159396, BAE06356, AAF54774, XP_001944021, XP_001629708, AAL29200, AAF57091, XP_002154441, XP_001624815, XP_001634999, AAF52303, XP_780706, ACG76360, XP_001630385, AAP79295, XP_001630386, AAL29193, AAC80008, NP_476781, BAE06678, XP_002109459, BAF85823, AAW34268, NP_001097126, BAE06492, XP_001638550, XP_002159483, CAA61134, XP_002115810, ACA04755, CAD57002, NP_730359, ACH68437, XP_001179003, BAE06474, NP_001024953, CAA06670.

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Figure 2. Structural homology of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR). Alignment of the human RAR paralogues, alpha (a), beta (b) and gamma (g), and the RAR isolated from the urochordate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis (accession number BAA25569). The boxes represent the location of functional domains within the nuclear receptor. Numerical representation given below the alignment relates to the homology for each domain between the human RAR paralogues and between the three paralogues and the urochordate RAR. This global multiple sequence alignment was generated using the ClustalX program v2.0.

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Figure 3. Retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoic acid X-receptor (RXR) in different metazoans. The presence of assayed RAR and RXR genes is shown in coloured boxes. The information given in this figure is based on BLAST search results, which have been verified by phylogenetic analyses. Modified with permission from Campo-Paysaa et al. 2008.

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Figure 4. Model of NR subfamily III evolution. Steroid hormone receptors originated from a duplication of an ancient ER. This hypothetical receptor represented as PR/CR ancestor, duplicated and gave rise to the PR and CR which are present in the lamprey and then duplicated once more to give the PR, GR, MR and AR present in terrestrial vertebrates. A further genome-level duplication event occurred within the teleost lineage. ERR refers to oestrogen-related receptor; ER, oestrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor; CR, corticoid receptor; AR, androgen receptor; GR, glucocorticoid receptor and MR, mineralocorticoid receptor.