Standard Article

Visual Pigment Genes: Evolution

  1. Shozo Yokoyama

Published Online: 30 APR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0006148.pub2



How to Cite

Yokoyama, S. 2008. Visual Pigment Genes: Evolution. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 APR 2008


More than 100 visual pigment genes have been cloned from a diverse range of vertebrates. Comparative sequence analyses of these genes and in vitro assays of engineered visual pigments have been used to elucidate not only the molecular bases of color vision but also the processes of adaptive evolution at the molecular level.


  • opsins;
  • visual pigments;
  • absorption spectra;
  • mutagenesis;
  • adaptive evolution