Standard Article

Population Stratification, Adjustment for

  1. Xiaoyi Gao1,
  2. Todd L Edwards2

Published Online: 18 OCT 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0020384



How to Cite

Gao, X. and Edwards, T. L. 2010. Population Stratification, Adjustment for. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

  2. 2

    Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 OCT 2010


Population stratification is a major concern in genetic association studies. Failure to control it effectively can lead to excess false-positive results and failure to detect true associations. Many methods have been designed to adjust for population stratification, which mainly belong to the following categories: (1) genomic control, (2) structured association, (3) principal component or multidimensional scaling adjustment, (4) stratification score method and (5) other approaches. No method is likely to be superior in all situations. Care needs to be taken to ensure that the assumptions of the method are met and that the method is used for its intended purpose.


  • population stratification;
  • genomic control;
  • structured association;
  • principal components;
  • multidimensional scaling;
  • stratification score