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Human Relationships Inferred from Genetic Variation

  1. Oscar Lao,
  2. Manfred Kayser

Published Online: 15 SEP 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0021758



How to Cite

Lao, O. and Kayser, M. 2009. Human Relationships Inferred from Genetic Variation. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2009
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Figure 1. Popular models proposed for the origin of anatomically modern humans. (a) Candelabra model. (b) Multiregional trellis model. (c) Out of Africa model. (d) Out of Africa model with population substratification. (e) Out of Africa again and again model. Adapted from Templeton 2007 and Excoffier 2002.

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Figure 2. Scheme of the main demographic processes documented in the archaeological record of Europe. Reprinted from Simoni et al., 2000. Copyright 2000, with permission from Elsevier.

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Figure 3. SNP-based principal component analysis (PCA) of 23 European subpopulations using 309 790 SNPs from The GeneChip® Human Mapping 500 K Array Set (Affymetrix) that passed quality control in 2457 European individuals. Each individual is a dot which is placed in the two genetic dimensions defined by the PCA. Individuals genetically close related will be placed closely. Geographic origin of the sampling is also provided. Adapted from Lao et al. 2008 with agreement from Current Biology/Cell Press.