Standard Article

You have free access to this content

Antibiotics and the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

  1. Jose L Martinez1,
  2. Fernando Baquero2

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0021782



How to Cite

Martinez, J. L. and Baquero, F. 2009. Antibiotics and the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    CNB Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain

  2. 2

    Department of Microbiology, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009


  1. References
  2. Further Reading

Further Reading

  1. References
  2. Further Reading
  • Alekshun MN and Levy SB (2007) Molecular mechanisms of antibacterial multidrug resistance. Cell 128: 10371050.
  • Andersson DI (2006) The biological cost of mutational antibiotic resistance: any practical conclusions? Current Opinion in Microbiology 9: 461465.
  • Baquero F (2008) Modularization and evolvability in antibiotic resistance. In: Baquero F, Nombela C, Cassell GH and Gutiérrez-Fuentes JA (eds) Evolutionary Biology of Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens, pp. 233247. Washington DC: ASM Press.
  • Coque TM, Novais A, Carattoli A et al. (2008) Dissemination of clonally related E. coli strains expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-15. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14: 195200.
  • Fajardo A and Martinez JL (2008) Antibiotics as signals that trigger specific bacterial responses. Current Opinion in Microbiology 11: 161167.
  • Martinez JL and Baquero F (2002) Interactions among strategies associated with bacterial infection: pathogenicity, epidemicity, and antibiotic resistance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15: 647679.