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Ecology and Social Organisation of Bees

  1. David W Roubik

Published Online: 15 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0023596



How to Cite

Roubik, D. W. 2012. Ecology and Social Organisation of Bees. eLS. .

Author Information

  1. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUN 2012
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Figure 1. (a) Colony of Exoneura (Allodapini), in Borneo (courtesy of M.P. Schwarz). (b) Colony, one live and one dead female, brood cells, of Euglossa hemichlora (Euglossini), in Panama.

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Figure 2. (a) Dispersing colony (absconding swarm) of Africanised Apis mellifera, in Panama. (b) A. mellifera and Hypotrigona (Meliponini) recruiting colonies to sugar water bait, in Gabon.

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Figure 3. (a) The nest entrance of Paratrigona ornaticeps (Meliponini), in Panama. (b) The nest entrance of Homotrigona fimbriata (Meliponini) fallen from a forest tree trunk, in Brunei.

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Figure 4. (a) Queen and workers of Melipona triplaridis (Meliponini) on brood comb, in Panama. (b) Workers of Melipona panamica (Meliponini) ripening nectar in nest, honey storage pots, in Panama. (c) Hive of Melipona, in Colombia.