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Magnetic Resonance, General Medical

Biomedical Spectroscopy

  1. Patrick Winter,
  2. Navin Bansal

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a0113m

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Winter, P. and Bansal, N. 2006. Magnetic Resonance, General Medical. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the basic physical phenomenon in which certain nuclei absorb and emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation while in the presence of a magnetic field. The noninvasive nature of NMR techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), has allowed explosive developments in biomedical applications since the late 1970s. MRI of protons is now a widely accepted clinical imaging technique, whereas MRS of various nuclei, including 31P, 1H, 13C, 23Na, and 19F, can provide a vast amount of metabolic and physiological information. MRI provides significant advantages over many other imaging techniques in terms of resolution, contrast, and its noninvasive nature. Although not as common in clinical medicine, MRS also provides valuable metabolic information that cannot be obtained by other techniques. This article reviews the fundamentals of spatial encoding, contrast, artifacts, and applications of MRI as well as some recent advances in the field. Some applications of biomedical MRS of various nuclei are also discussed.