Standard Article

Sample Preparation for Analysis of Chemicals Related to the Chemical Weapons Convention in an Off-site Laboratory

Chemical Weapons Chemicals Analysis

  1. Marja-Leena Kuitunen

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a0410.pub2

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Kuitunen, M.-L. 2010. Sample Preparation for Analysis of Chemicals Related to the Chemical Weapons Convention in an Off-site Laboratory. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. University of Helsinki, Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention, Helsinki, Finland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


This article discusses the preparation of environmental samples to be analyzed for chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), where analysis takes place off-site by gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) as an introduction technique to spectrometers, or by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The specific sample preparation methods required for analysis by spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are dealt with in separate articles. Preparations of air, aqueous liquid (water), soil, active charcoal, wipe, and concrete samples, and samples of paint, rubber, and other polymeric materials for off-site analysis are presented in Section 2 and are as described in the corresponding recommended operating procedures (ROPs). In addition, preparations of organic liquid samples are presented, as described in the in-house operating procedures of the Finnish Institute for CWC analysis. Section 3 examines the question of quality control (QC) in sample preparation and Section 4 discusses the important matter of safety in handling samples that may contain CWC-related chemicals. Section 5 reports on the use of the methods in international comparison and proficiency tests.


  • Chemical Weapons Convention;
  • chemical warfare;
  • analysis;
  • sample preparation;
  • extraction;
  • derivatization;
  • methylation;
  • silylation