Standard Article

Biosensor Design and Fabrication

Clinical Chemistry

  1. G.A. Urban

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a0505

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Urban, G. 2006. Biosensor Design and Fabrication. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


This paper presents the use of biosensor devices for bioanalytical purposes. In contrast to common analytical tools using sophisticated and bulky devices, biosensors should be able to perform measurements in untreated samples in a simple and inexpensive manner. As a model creating biosensors serves nature which produces a variety of selective molecules during evolution that can be used in technical sensor devices. Combining such natural molecules with methods from microelectronics, mass fabrication of laboratories on chip seems feasible. Emerging markets for such tools can be seen in medicine, drug screening and biotechnology.

After explaining the principles of biosensors different transducing methods are explained showing advantages and disadvantages for creating biosensors. The greatest emphasis is laid on electrochemical and optical principles which exhibit an overwhelming experience and the largest impact on future developments. Despite such developments, acoustic and calorimetric transducers are also explained. As biological sensing agents enzymes, antibodies and DNA are described with appropriate immobilizing procedures.

Additionally, new aspects for creating a laboratory-on-chip using microanalytical systems (μTAS) including microfluidics and actuator modules are given for creating sensing systems for metabolic parameters and also cell-based and affinity-based systems for screening purposes. The purpose of this section is to give an overview and to explain the present possibilities for creating biosensor systems and ends up with an outlook in the near analytical future for new sophisticated and miniaturized analytical systems.