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Urinalysis and Other Bodily Fluids

Clinical Chemistry

  1. Helen M. Free,
  2. Alfred H. Free (deceased)

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a0548

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Free, H. M. and Free (deceased), A. H. 2006. Urinalysis and Other Bodily Fluids. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Bayer Corporation, Elkhart, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


The chemical analysis of urine and other body fluids is an integral part of laboratory medicine today. Clinical chemistry measurements are made in laboratories ranging from large medical research/teaching centers to small rural physicians' offices, and with varying degrees of sophistication in all parts of the world. Indeed, the use of chemical tests at home is currently an important part of monitoring chronic conditions such as diabetes, and this aspect of chemical testing is expected to expand.

This article traces the historical methods of urine testing to provide information on health and disease, from crude visual examination in ancient times to modern techniques using sophisticated chemical instrumentation. The information obtained is useful in the diagnosis of disease, in monitoring the course of the treatment of disease, and in helping to maintain wellness in normal populations.

The chemical tests most widely used in urinalysis are described in some detail along with a discussion of the development of commercial tests leading to the evolution of the diagnostics industry. Chemical tests on other bodily fluids are briefly summarized.