Ultraviolet/Visible Light Detection and Ranging Applications in Air Monitoring
Environment: Trace Gas Monitoring
Published Online: 15 MAR 2011
Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry
How to Cite
Wolf, J.-P. 2011. Ultraviolet/Visible Light Detection and Ranging Applications in Air Monitoring. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .
- Published Online: 15 MAR 2011
Recent progress in light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and differential absorption light detection and ranging (DIAL) technology has allowed three-dimensional (3-D) mappings of concentrations of air pollutants to be obtained at the highest sensitivity (parts per billion) and over large distances (several kilometers). It is now possible to monitor on-line spatial distributions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone, benzene, toluene, and aerosols. With the advent of tunable solid-state laser systems, such as vibronic lasers and optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), LIDAR systems have furthermore reached industrial standards in terms of reliability and ease of operation. An overview of results and capabilities of “all-solid-state” LIDAR/DIAL systems is presented. The examples of application include detailed urban studies performed in large cities (e.g. Berlin, Leipzig, Lyon, Paris, Stuttgart, Geneva, Athens, and Seville), with special attention to smog formation processes and tropospheric ozone generation. Industrial applications are also numerous, such as site monitoring, identification of diffuse emissions, and evaluation of the impact of new emitters through plume dispersion studies. The use of LIDAR systems for validating numerical models is also discussed, along with intercomparison with standard analyzers and related certification issues. The last section is dedicated to a new class of LIDAR systems, based on femtosecond lasers, which not only allow multicomponent analysis but also possible weather modulation.