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Waste Extraction Procedures

Environment: Water and Waste

  1. Barton P. Simmons

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a0883m

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Simmons, B. P. 2006. Waste Extraction Procedures. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. California Environmental Protection Agency, Berkeley, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


Waste extraction procedures (EPs) were developed to identify wastes which have a potential for groundwater or surface water contamination. Procedures are used for both organic and inorganic substances to comply with specific regulatory requirements, for example, to identify wastes which are subject to regulation as hazardous wastes. In the United States, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is the most widely used procedure. Volatile organics are extracted using a zero-headspace extractor, while semivolatile organics and inorganic substances are extracted using a bottle extractor. Because the typical batch EP does not measure a fundamental property of a waste, the result is highly dependent on steps in the protocol, particularly the choice of extraction solution. Although batch extraction tests like the TCLP are the most common procedures, other procedures using multiple pHs and multiple liquid : solid ratios have been developed to overcome the limitations of batch tests.