Metals in Blood and Urine: Biological Monitoring for Worker Exposure
Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry
How to Cite
Ullucci, P. A. 2006. Metals in Blood and Urine: Biological Monitoring for Worker Exposure. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
Biological monitoring uses sophisticated analytical techniques for the accurate and precise determination of metals in blood and urine. This provides occupational health professionals with the means to monitor worker exposure to toxic metals. For metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, good correlations have been found between the level of the metal in blood and/or urine and health impairment.
Analytical techniques such as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) have been widely used to determine metals in biological samples. Since metals may exist in different forms in blood and urine, chromatographic separation combined with spectroscopic detection has been used to determine metal species. Biological monitoring is an example of how modern analytical chemistry has provided the tools needed to protect the health of workers.