Standard Article

Fuel Performance Specifications, Mid-Infrared Analysis of

Petroleum and Liquid Fossil Fuels Analysis

  1. Boris Mizaikoff

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a1810

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Mizaikoff, B. 2006. Fuel Performance Specifications, Mid-Infrared Analysis of. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Vienna University of Technology, Austria

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


The release of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 introduced reformulated gasoline legislation regulating the composition of fuels and particularly gasoline in order to improve the air quality by a significant reduction in vehicle exhaust emission levels. With the introduction of certain amounts of nonfuel oxygenates into fuel including various alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, t-butanol and ethers like methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) a reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon emissions is envisaged. Furthermore, a reduction in aromatic compounds and benzene is demanded providing a decreased release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

With the implementation of this program, the refining industry and their petrochemical laboratories have been forced to control accurately and to monitor continuously their gasoline blending processes. Furthermore, regulatory agencies are required to implement the use of portable analytical techniques in order to ensure the enforcement of such novel threshold values.

Besides the conventional techniques using separation-based methods such as gas chromatography (GC), the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range has gained significant importance. Owing to the molecule specific absorption patterns of ethers, alcohols and aromatics, the distinct determination of fuel additives and subsequent derivation of general fuel parameters is enabled. The performance of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and filter-based spectroscopic techniques will be reviewed and compared to other spectroscopic approaches. Furthermore, data evaluation procedures and ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) approval of these novel methods will be highlighted.