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Flow and Sequential Injection Analysis Techniques in Process Analysis

Process Instrumental Methods

  1. Joseph H. Aldstadt III1,*,
  2. Don C. Olson2,
  3. Duane K. Wolcott2,
  4. Graham D. Marshall2,
  5. Scott W. Stieg3

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a2104

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Aldstadt, J. H., Olson, D. C., Wolcott, D. K., Marshall, G. D. and Stieg, S. W. 2006. Flow and Sequential Injection Analysis Techniques in Process Analysis. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, WI, USA

  2. 2

    Global FIA, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA, USA

  3. 3

    Zellweger Analytics/Lachat Instruments, Milwaukee, WI, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


The principles of flow injection analysis (FIA) and sequential injection analysis (SIA) are described as applied to industrial process monitoring. A brief history is followed by an overview of the fundamentals of FIA and SIA, with emphasis on injection methods and membrane-assisted sample processing approaches. A discussion of the design of process instruments focuses on simplicity, maintainability, and software development. Hardware issues affecting autosamplers, fittings, pumps, and valves are also discussed. Issues affecting method development, quality control, and method validation are examined using specific examples from the chlor-alkali and phosphate rock industries. The design and operation of on-line sample interfaces is then described in detail. Applications in the major industrial areas are used as examples – chemical, biotechnology, manufacturing, and environmental. Finally, strengths and weaknesses are delineated and prospects for the future are presented.