Standard Article

Metal Analysis, Sampling and Sample Preparation in

Steel and Related Materials

  1. Charles K. Deak

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a2409

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Deak, C. K. 2006. Metal Analysis, Sampling and Sample Preparation in. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. C.K. Deak Technical Services, Inc.,, Warren, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


This article deals with sampling and sample preparation for the chemical analysis of metals. It discusses the types of samples, their definitions, purposes, and requirements. Sampling of various types, shapes, and forms of metals ranging from liquid molten steel to scrap metals is described, along with ways of rendering a sample homogeneous. The various methods of making a sample suitable for the required analytical procedures are explained in the sample preparation section. This section discusses melting of samples in various types of laboratory melting furnaces and machining samples for use in all types of determinations using various techniques such as optical emission spectroscopy (OES), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), atomic spectroscopy, thermal analyses, wet chemistry and so on. Discussion also centers around dissolving and fusing samples to convert them into a solution which is required by wet chemical, atomic spectroscopy, and other procedures.

Sampling and analysis of fasteners (regulated in the United States), and instances in which the sample or the analysis is or may be involved in litigation are also included.