Update based on original article by Rosario Pereiro and Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, ©2000, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Flow Injection Analysis Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy
Published Online: 15 SEP 2011
Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry
How to Cite
Pereiro, R. and Sanz-Medel, A. 2011. Flow Injection Analysis Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2011
Flow injection analysis (FIA), developed originally for the automation of serial assays, has become a powerful tool most adequate for performing on-line any sample preparation before final measurement (e.g. sample dissolution, dilutions, matrix removal, preconcentration, etc.). It is not surprising that the combination of FIA with atomic spectrometric techniques has enlarged the analytical potential of atomic methods and expanded their field of applications. The collection of sample manipulation processes that can be covered today by flow operation procedures is amazing and therefore the general instrumentation required is reviewed in this article.
The description of the different flow strategies is carried out according to a hierarchy going from simple dilutions, reagent mixing, or standard additions, to more sophisticated flow manifolds such as those based on the use of two phases (e.g. gas–liquid, liquid–liquid, or solid–liquid) for separation/preconcentration purposes. Modern approaches allowing for on-line decomposition/dissolution of solid samples (e.g. photooxidation and microwave heating) are also described.
The coupling of the above flow methodologies to a variety of atomization/excitation/ionization sources (flames, quartz tubes, graphite furnaces, inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs), microwave-induced plasmas (MIPs), glow discharges (GDs), etc.) is detailed, aiming to show the usefulness of this combination for atomic techniques based either on photon measurements (absorption, emission, and fluorescence) or on ion measurements (mass spectrometry (MS)).