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Flow Injection Analysis Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy

Atomic Spectroscopy

  1. Rosario Pereiro,
  2. Alfredo Sanz-Medel*

Published Online: 15 SEP 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a5106.pub2

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Pereiro, R. and Sanz-Medel, A. 2011. Flow Injection Analysis Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain

  1. *

    Update based on original article by Rosario Pereiro and Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, ©2000, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2011

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (16 SEP 2016)


Flow injection analysis (FIA), developed originally for the automation of serial assays, has become a powerful tool most adequate for performing on-line any sample preparation before final measurement (e.g. sample dissolution, dilutions, matrix removal, preconcentration, etc.). It is not surprising that the combination of FIA with atomic spectrometric techniques has enlarged the analytical potential of atomic methods and expanded their field of applications. The collection of sample manipulation processes that can be covered today by flow operation procedures is amazing and therefore the general instrumentation required is reviewed in this article.

The description of the different flow strategies is carried out according to a hierarchy going from simple dilutions, reagent mixing, or standard additions, to more sophisticated flow manifolds such as those based on the use of two phases (e.g. gas–liquid, liquid–liquid, or solid–liquid) for separation/preconcentration purposes. Modern approaches allowing for on-line decomposition/dissolution of solid samples (e.g. photooxidation and microwave heating) are also described.

The coupling of the above flow methodologies to a variety of atomization/excitation/ionization sources (flames, quartz tubes, graphite furnaces, inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs), microwave-induced plasmas (MIPs), glow discharges (GDs), etc.) is detailed, aiming to show the usefulness of this combination for atomic techniques based either on photon measurements (absorption, emission, and fluorescence) or on ion measurements (mass spectrometry (MS)).