Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Spin-1/2 Nuclei Other than Carbon and Proton
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry
How to Cite
McGregor, M. 2006. Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Spin-1/2 Nuclei Other than Carbon and Proton. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry.
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
There are 22 spin- nuclei other than hydrogen and carbon, some with more than one spin- isotope. Four of these, 15N, 19F, 29Si and 31P, have been of major importance in chemistry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and are the subject of an extensive literature. Many spin- nuclides have had more specialized uses, such as 3H, 77Se, 109Ag, 113Cd, 119Sn, 125Te, 129Xe, 195Pt, 205Tl, and 207Pb. A few have been of limited use, generally due to poor sensitivity: 57Fe, 89Y, 103Rh, 169Tm, 171Yb, 183W, 187Os and 199Hg.
Spin- nuclei generally produce sharp spectral lines, which may allow a wealth of fine structure from spin–spin coupling to be observed. This coupling, along with chemical shift information and dipolar coupling information (nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE)) are used in a variety of ways to obtain structural information and solve chemical problems.
After a brief discussion of analytical techniques, the history, experimental practices, physical properties, relaxation properties, chemical shift referencing, applications and literature references for each nuclide are presented.