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Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Small Molecules

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

  1. Henrik Pedersen

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a6118

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Pedersen, H. 2006. Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Small Molecules. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen-Valby, Denmark

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


The article deals with practical aspects in obtaining two-dimensional (2-D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of small molecules [molecular weight (MW) < 1000]. This includes the choice of parameters for acquisition and processing and the required and optional instrument hardware. Examples of 2-D experiments are given with emphases on robustness and ease of use. The pulse sequences are given in schematic form together with suggestions for basic parameters and the phase cycle. The experiment examples include homonuclear and heteronuclear experiments with direct and indirect detection. Also the use of pulsed field gradients (PFGs) is exemplified. 2-D NMR on spin-equation image nuclei other than 1H and 13C is exemplified by 19F and 15N experiments. Experiments on gel-phase samples under magic angle conditions are mentioned briefly.