Particle-Induced γ-Ray Emission
Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry
How to Cite
Mutsaers, P. and de Voigt, M. 2006. Particle-Induced γ-Ray Emission. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
Particle-induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) is commonly applied for quantitative analysis of materials. γ-Rays, characteristic of the elements, are emitted after nuclear reactions. These reactions are induced by particle beams (e.g. protons) from accelerators. The reaction conditions and probabilities are explained, as well as the γ-ray properties and probabilities of emission. Knowledge of those parameters enables concentrations of elements to be deduced from the γ-ray spectra, which under certain conditions are also depth dependent. Therefore the samples must be small and flat. The experimental set-up and procedures are given together with a table with the most intense proton reactions and the energies of the emitted γ-rays. Various examples are given to illustrate the method in different applications.