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Absorption Techniques in X-Ray Spectrometry

X-Ray Spectrometry

  1. Jun Kawai

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a6802

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Kawai, J. 2006. Absorption Techniques in X-Ray Spectrometry. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


X-ray absorbance depends on the wavelength of the X-rays, atomic number, chemical environment, and concentration of analyte. X-ray absorption spectrometry is a technique for analyzing the chemical environment of an element in an unknown material. This method is closely related to photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

Chemical information in the chemical shift and line shape of XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) spectra is described. The history and theory of EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are discussed in relation to other experimental techniques. Data analysis methods, databases, software packages, instrumentation, and synchrotron radiation facilities for X-ray absorption analysis are overviewed. Alternative methods such as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), self-absorption effect, extended X-ray emission fine structure (EXEFS), X-ray Raman scattering, diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS), β-environment fine structure (BEFS), and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) are also described.