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Methods for Retrospective Detection of Exposure to Toxic Scheduled Chemicals. Part B: Mass Spectrometric and Immunochemical Analysis of Covalent Adducts to Proteins and DNA

Chemical Weapons Chemicals Analysis

  1. Daan Noort1,
  2. Robin M. Black2

Published Online: 17 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9029

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Noort, D. and Black, R. M. 2012. Methods for Retrospective Detection of Exposure to Toxic Scheduled Chemicals. Part B: Mass Spectrometric and Immunochemical Analysis of Covalent Adducts to Proteins and DNA. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. 1–18.

Author Information

  1. 1

    TNO Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences, Rijswijk, The Netherlands

  2. 2

    Dstl, Wiltshire, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 DEC 2012

Abstract

In this article, an overview of the methods that are currently available for retrospective detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), based on adducts formed with macromolecules such as proteins, is presented. These methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g. diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, confirmation of nonexposure, verification of nonadherence to the Chemical Weapons Convention, health surveillance, and forensic purposes. The advantage of using protein adducts as biomarkers in comparison with free metabolites is that they are potentially much more long-lived. The methods are predominantly based on LC/MS analysis of enzymatic digests of the (modified) proteins or on selective removal of the specific adduct moiety from the protein, followed by GC/MS or LC/MS. Several of the methods have been successfully applied to actual cases and were shown to be highly retrospective.