Nanomaterials for Electroanalysis
Published Online: 15 JUN 2010
Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. All rights reserved.
Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry
How to Cite
Merkoçi, A., Ambrosi, A., de la Escosura-Muñiz, A., Pérez-López, B., Guix, M., Maltez, M. and Marin, S. 2010. Nanomaterials for Electroanalysis. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .
- Published Online: 15 JUN 2010
The emergence of nanotechnology and nanomaterials has opened up new horizons for the development of improved analytical devices. New synthesis, fabrication, and characterization methods offer the possibility to control the size, shape, and composition of nanometric-scale materials, thereby allowing exquisite control of their properties. The ability to carefully tailor the physical properties of nanomaterials is probably the major achievement of nanoscience and represents an essential element for their application in analytical systems.
Among the numerous detecting strategies, electrochemical sensing techniques play a growing role in various fields in which an accurate, low-cost, fast, and online analytical measuring system is required. Besides the relatively low cost compared with optical instrumentation, advantages such as the possibility of miniaturization as well as in-field applications make electrochemical sensing devices very attractive.
The properties of nanostructured materials, such as high surface/volume ratio, their ability to be functionalized, favorable electronic and thermal features, and electrocatalytic effect attracted considerable attention for the assembling of novel electrochemical sensing systems. Nanomaterials such as nanoparticles (NPs), nanotubes, nanowires, nanocomposites, and nanochannels of various sizes and compositions have been applied in electroanalysis to improve the immobilization of enzymes, antigens, and nucleic acids on electrochemical transducer surfaces, to promote the direct electron-transfer reactions, and to amplify and orient the analytic signal of biorecognition events. In this article, a general description of the properties of the nanomaterials most commonly used in electroanalysis, along with their integration into electrochemical analytical tools, is given. The analytical performances and the impact such nanomaterial-based devices are expected to have upon clinical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, security surveillance, and food safety are also discussed.
- quantum dots;
- carbon nanotubes;