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Electrochemical Detection of Proteins

Peptides and Proteins

  1. Martin Bartošík,
  2. Thomas Doneux,
  3. Zdeněk Pechan,
  4. Veronika Ostatná,
  5. Emil Paleček

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9083

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Bartošík, M., Doneux, T., Pechan, Z., Ostatná, V. and Paleček, E. 2009. Electrochemical Detection of Proteins. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

Abstract

The advantages of electrochemical methods, such as low cost, rapidity, and sensitivity, make these methods very promising in the booming fields of proteomics and biomedicine. Electroanalysis of proteins relies on redox properties of nonprotein centers within conjugated proteins, application of various labels attached to the protein molecule, or label-free detection of nonconjugated proteins based on their intrinsic electroactivity. Until recently, electrochemistry of proteins was mainly focused on a relatively small group of conjugated proteins, yielding reversible electrochemistry. This article discusses the new methods that were developed to detect and analyze practically all proteins. Different strategies for electrochemical detection of proteins are presented. Electrode modification by biomolecular receptors (antibodies, aptamers) and their potential use for detection of specific proteins, e.g. disease markers, can be utilized in the development of various sensors. Label-free electrochemical study of nonconjugated proteins, involving impedance measurements at various electrodes, faradaic signals of tyrosine and tryptophan residues at carbon electrodes and cysteine residues, and electrocatalytic signals at mercury and solid amalgam electrodes have been used. Among them, well-developed chronopotentiometric peak (peak H) due to catalytic hydrogen evolution shows remarkable sensitivity to local and global changes in protein structure. Recent developments in protein electrochemistry open the way for application of electrochemical analysis in proteomics and biomedicine.

Keywords:

  • electrochemistry of all proteins;
  • protein-electrode interface;
  • electrochemical protein immunoassays;
  • direct electrochemistry of redox proteins;
  • protein catalyzed hydrogen evolution;
  • voltammetric and chronopotentiometric methods