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Pulsed Methods in Electron Spin Resonance

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

  1. Michael K. Bowman

Published Online: 15 SEP 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9141

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Bowman, M. K. 2010. Pulsed Methods in Electron Spin Resonance. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2010


This article describes how pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) signals and spectra are generated. A few basic pulse sequences are introduced, along with a simple vector model and the Bloch equations to explain the signals that are produced and the type of information each signal contains. The major applications of pulsed ESR are described for the measurement of ESR spectra, relaxation times, chemical reaction kinetics, molecular motion, hyperfine interactions, and the distances between radicals. The common pulse sequences used for each of these measurements are described and some of the limitations and drawbacks are discussed. The simple models for pulsed ESR are modified, as needed, to explain unexpected features encountered in some experimental measurements. Double resonance and 2D spectroscopies such as electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), double electron–electron resonance (DEER), and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) are discussed.


  • ESR;
  • ENDOR;
  • DEER;
  • free radical;
  • EPR;
  • magnetic resonance;
  • pulsed ESR;
  • pulsed EPR