Standard Article


Clinical Chemistry

  1. Stacy E.F. Melanson

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9143

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Melanson, S. E. 2009. Pharmacogenomics. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Pathology, Division of Clinical Laboratories, Boston, MA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009


Adverse drug reactions occur in 5–10% of hospitalized patients and are one of the leading causes of death in the United States. 1, 2 The field of pharmacogenomics explores the relationship between a patient's genetics and his/her response to drugs. If a patient's response to a drug can be predicted by his/her genetics, then the right drug at the right dose can be administered. Additionally, harmful side effects and toxicity can be avoided. Pharmacogenomic genotyping offers the advantage that it only needs to be performed once and can provide unequivocal genetic information. However, the complexity of gene regulation and gene–environment interaction can complicate pharmacogenomic testing. This article provides an overview of pharmacogenomics and examples of pharmacogenomic applications.


  • pharmacogenetics;
  • adverse drug reactions;
  • personalized medicine;
  • drug metabolism;
  • genetic polymorphisms;
  • thiopurines;
  • irinotecan;
  • warfarin;
  • codeine;
  • immunosuppressants