Standard Article

Dispersive Solid-Phase (Micro)Extraction

General Articles

  1. M Soledad Cárdenas Aranzana

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9167

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Cárdenas Aranzana, M. S. 2010. Dispersive Solid-Phase (Micro)Extraction. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. University of Córdoba, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Córdoba, Spain

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

Abstract

Dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) is a sample treatment technique focused on selectivity enhancement. It was conceived as a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe approach for the determination of pesticides in fruits and vegetables. Its applicability in this field as a standard method has been recognized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The method involves the extraction of the analytes of interest with acetonitrile, the partitioning being promoted by the presence of salts, typically anhydrous sodium sulfate and sodium chloride. After centrifugation, a reduced amount of dispersive sorbent (in the milligram range) is added. The sorbent is selected to preferably interact with the endogenous matrix components rather than with the analytes of interest. In this way, the organic extract is cleaned up, retaining the target compounds in the liquid phase. Instrumental analysis can be done using the organic phase with or without conditioning. Since its publication, several modifications have been introduced in order to extend its applicability to a wide range of sample–analyte binomials. Recently, a miniaturized version of the DSPE technique has been proposed for analytes preconcentration, the compounds being analyzed after their transference to the organic solvent.

Keywords:

  • dispersive solid-phase extraction;
  • dispersive microsolid phase extraction;
  • clean up;
  • selectivity;
  • sensitivity;
  • food analysis;
  • environmental samples