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Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction

Process Instrumental Methods

  1. Marta Cruz-Vera

Published Online: 15 DEC 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9172

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Cruz-Vera, M. 2010. Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. University of Cordoba, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Córdoba, Spain

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2010


Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) is a new microextraction technique with a high potential in sample pretreatment. This article presents the state of the art and discusses the prospects of DLLME. A contextual description of sample pretreatment techniques ranging from liquid–liquid extraction to microextraction is provided for the readers to gain a better understanding of the topic. General and specific concepts of the fundamental theory of DLLME that are required to understand and implement the technique are described, and examples of recent innovations and applications are provided to illustrate its potential for the determination of a wide range of compounds in various types of matrices. Finally, its combined use with other pretreatment approaches, and separation and detection techniques, is also discussed.


  • microextraction techniques;
  • solid-phase microextraction;
  • liquid-phase microextraction;
  • dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction;
  • sample pretreatment