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Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Pharmaceutical Formulations

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy

  1. Joseph W. Lubach1,
  2. Eric J. Munson2

Published Online: 20 SEP 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9174

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Lubach, J. W. and Munson, E. J. 2013. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Pharmaceutical Formulations. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. 1–18.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA

  2. 2

    University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 SEP 2013


Analysis of pharmaceutical solids using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is finally coming of age. The wealth of information that solid-state NMR can provide is unmatched by any other single technique used to characterize pharmaceutical solids. Perhaps the area where NMR can provide the most benefit to pharmaceutical scientists is in the analysis of formulated drug products, where the active pharmaceutical ingredient ( API ) is diluted in the presence of one or more inactive ingredients, or excipients. Unlike most other techniques, NMR has the ability to selectively characterize the physical states of the API as well as excipients, as they exist together within the formulation, without separation or sample destruction. Critical issues such as crystal form, crystallinity, amorphous content, ionization states, hydration states, molecular mobility, and drug–excipient interactions may all be studied using modern solid-state NMR. Here we examine some of the presently available literature, provide relevant references, and demonstrate examples of how to best utilize the technique and interpret the results.