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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nanotechnology: Applications in Clinical Diagnostics and Monitoring

Clinical Chemistry

  1. Lynell R. Skewis,
  2. Vasiliki Demas,
  3. Thomas J. Lowery

Published Online: 15 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470027318.a9344

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry

How to Cite

Skewis, L. R., Demas, V. and Lowery, T. J. 2013. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nanotechnology: Applications in Clinical Diagnostics and Monitoring. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. .

Author Information

  1. T2 Biosystems, Inc, Lexington, MA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2013

Abstract

Significant progress has been made over the last two decades toward the development of cutting edge diagnostics using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR). The MNP-based assay design, termed magnetic relaxation switch (MRSw) biosensing, has allowed for the application of T2MR to a wide range of clinical diagnostics. In MRSw assays, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) switch between dispersed and agglomerated states and affect the T2MR relaxation rate of surrounding water molecules. Sensitive T2MR relaxation measurements can be performed in complex, heterogeneous, biological samples owing to their inherently low magnetic background. MRSw assays have been designed for rapid and sensitive detection of disease biomarkers, pathogens, and cancer cells in both simulated samples and clinical studies.