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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Infectious Diseases

Published Online: 16 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470041000.cedt110

Wiley Handbook of Current and Emerging Drug Therapies

Wiley Handbook of Current and Emerging Drug Therapies

How to Cite

2007. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Wiley Handbook of Current and Emerging Drug Therapies. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 16 JUL 2007


HIV impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the advanced state of HIV infection wherein the patient is severely immunocompromised and prone to developing opportunistic infections. The diagnosis of AIDS is triggered by the development of certain opportunistic infections or the detection of severe immunodeficiency. The highly mutable nature of HIV and the consequent development of drug resistance in patients taking antiretroviral therapy drive the need for new, more potent therapies and classes with novel mechanisms of action. Among emerging therapies in the conventional classes, a novel protease inhibitor (PI) TMC114 appears to be highly active against virus strains with several primary PI mutations. Among the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), drug developers have sought to develop products that are active against the mutations that commonly lead to cross-resistance against the entire class (e.g., K103N, Y181C); however, additional clinical data are required to assess their future role in treatment. Among the novel classes in later stages of development, which include the chemokine antagonists (CCR5 and CXCR4 antagonists), entry inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and maturation inhibitors, the CCR5 antagonists and integrase inhibitors appear the most promising.


  • HIV;
  • antiretrovirals;
  • non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs);
  • chemokine antagonists;
  • entry inhibitors;
  • integrase inhibitors;
  • maturation inhibitors;
  • phenotypic-switch phenomenon