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Cybernetics

  1. Alex M. Andrew

Published Online: 13 JUN 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470050118.ecse930

Wiley Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering

Wiley Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering

How to Cite

Andrew, A. M. 2008. Cybernetics. Wiley Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering. 1–7.

Author Information

  1. University of Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 13 JUN 2008

Abstract

The topic, originally defined as the study of communication and control in the animal and the machine, is reviewed under headings including history, feedback and servomechanisms, neurophysiology and digital computing, Shannon's Information Theory, artificial intelligence, second-order cybernetics, management, sociocybernetics and finally the Gaia hypothesis, which refers to the biologic regulation of global variables. Second-order cybernetics, or cybernetics that includes the observer, provides insights into management and sociocybernetics.

Keywords:

  • cybernetics;
  • servomechaisms;
  • artificial intelligence;
  • neurophsiology;
  • computing;
  • constructivism;
  • management;
  • sociology;
  • Gaia hypothesis