Standard Article

BACI Design

Ecological Statistics

  1. Eric P. Smith

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vab001

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Smith, E. P. 2006. BACI Design. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 1.

Author Information

  1. Virginia Polytechnic Institute, VA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 JAN 2013)


The purpose of impact assessment is to evaluate whether or not a stressor has changed the environment, which components are adversely affected and to estimate the magnitude of the effects. The evaluation of impact involves comparative methods. Early approaches to impact assessment involved the use of computer simulation models to predict the impact. Decisions were then made based on the soundness of those predictions. Although the data used to interpret effects are quite varied, the methods for analysis are often quite similar and involve comparison of impact areas with control areas. When information is available prior to the potential impact, the design is often referred to as a Before–After Control-impact (BACI) design. Several variations on the basic design have been proposed and are discussed in this article.


  • impact assessment;
  • before after design;
  • ANOVA;
  • repeated measures