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Benchmark Analysis

Environmental Health

  1. DR Kenneth Crump

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vab009

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Crump, K. 2006. Benchmark Analysis. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 1.

Author Information

  1. ICF Kaiser, LA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


The benchmark approach is a statistical procedure applied to dose–response data from toxicologic, clinical or epidemiologic studies. It can be used to set health standards or guidelines for exposures to toxic substances. Such guidelines include those promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) called references doses (RfDs), for oral exposures, or reference concentrations (RfCs), for exposures through the ambient air. The USEPA defined the RfD as ‘an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily exposure to the human population, including sensitive subgroups, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime’.