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Ecological Statistics

  1. Melodie A. Mcgeoch1,2

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vab017.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Mcgeoch, M. A. 2013. Bioindicators . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 1.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

  2. 2

    South African National Parks, Cape Town, South Africa

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


A biological indicator is a species (or group of species) that readily reflects some aspect of the state of the environment within which it is found. Bioindicators are used to detect or demonstrate the existence of a particular environmental state, and to monitor changes in that state. In this way they are used as tools to extract abiotic or biotic information from the environment so that this information can be used for making scientifically based management and policy decisions.


  • monitoring;
  • species composition;
  • water quality;
  • abundance;
  • global environmental change