Standard Article


Statistical and Numerical Computing

  1. Shojaeddin Chenouri

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vac028.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Chenouri, S. 2013. Clustering . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 1.

Author Information

  1. University of Waterloo, ON, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


Cluster analysis is concerned with the subdivision of individual objects into natural groups on the basis of collected data relating to these objects. The data may consist of observations on each object, or of perceived similarities or dissimilarities between pairs. As a statistical technique, cluster analysis is a form of “unsupervised classification,” as opposed to supervised classification, in which the groups and the group membership of the data are known, and are used to form rules to classify future observations. It is closely related to ordination, including principal component analysis and projection pursuit. These techniques are often used to justify the results of cluster analysis.


  • biclustering;
  • classification;
  • dendrogram;
  • gap statistic;
  • hierarchical clustering;
  • mixture models;
  • similarity measures;
  • spectral clustering