Standard Article

Cross-Scale Morphology

Ecological Statistics

  1. Ahjond S. Garmestani1,
  2. Craig R. Allen2,
  3. C.S. Holling3

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vac061.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Garmestani, A. S., Allen, C. R. and Holling, C. 2013. Cross-Scale Morphology . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, USA

  2. 2

    University of Nebraska – Lincoln, US Geological Survey – Nebraska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, NE, USA

  3. 3

    Resilience Center, Nanaimo, BC, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


The scaling of physical, biological, ecological and social phenomena is a major focus of efforts to develop simple representations of complex systems. Much of the attention has been on discovering universal scaling laws that emerge from simple physical and geometric processes. However, there are regular patterns of departures both from those scaling laws and from continuous distributions of attributes of systems. Those departures often demonstrate the development of self-organized interactions between living systems and physical processes over narrower ranges of scale.


  • resilience;
  • panarchy;
  • cross-scale;
  • complex systems;
  • discontinuities